1. Western Europe
Laws concerning administrative offenses in the “established democracies” of Europe are inherently diverse. Differences appear in the titles given to administrative offenses, as well as in the legal ownership of administrative offenses, the relationship between administrative offenses and criminal offenses, the characteristics of the subjects of responsibility, the subjective side of the relevant offenses and the consequences of committing such violations. The laws also differ in the manner in which they have been established and the way specific laws address responsibility for administrative offenses.